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Electricity Generation

Currently, 32 nuclear power units with the overall installed capacity of 25,2 GW are operated at 10 sites by Rosenergoatom Concern. They account for about 16% of domestic electricity generation. The share of nuclear generation in the European part of Russia reaches 30%, in the North-West part of the country – 37%. In terms of organization, all plants are branches of Rosenergoatom Concern (incorporated in Atomenergoprom controlled by ROSATOM), which is the Europe’s second largest utility after the French EDF and the first utility in generation in the country.


 



The safety is a priority in operation of the nuclear power plants. There have been no safety-significant incidents higher than Level 0 according to INES scale since 2004. The number of unscheduled plant disconnections from the grid and unplanned reactor shutdowns is going down, hence making the Russian nuclear utility the second in the world after Japan, to leave the USA, the United Kingdom, Germany and France behind. Radiation levels do not exceed background values typical of locales near the plants.


The main goals of Rosenergoatom Concern are to increase the capacity factor of the operating plants. To fulfill this objective, Rosenergoatom Concern has elaborated a special program for increasing capacity factor in the period until 2015. The implementation of this program will give the company the benefit equal to commissioning of four nuclear units with the installed capacity 4.5 GW. The company achieved considerable growth of electricity generation in 2006 - 2008 owing to a capacity factor increase from 76 % to 80.9 %.


NPPs Currently in Operation in Russia


Balakovo NPP

Location: near Balakovo (Saratov region)
Reactor type: VVER -1000
Number of units: 4
Years of commissioning: 1985, 1987, 1988, 1993

The Balakovo plant, which generates one fourth of Volga Federal District electricity, is one of the largest state-of-the-art power facilities in Russia. It provides dependable power supply to customers in Volga region (76 % of delivered electricity), Central region (13 %), Urals (8 %) and Siberia (3 %). With its VVERs (pressurized light water-cooled water-moderated vessel reactors), the plant produces the cheapest electricity among all Russian nuclear and fossil plants. Capacity factor of the plant exceeds 80 %. In 1995, 1999, 2000, 2003 and 2005—2007, Balakovo plant was rated as the “Best Russian NPP”.

Beloyarsk NPP
Location: near Zarechny (Sverdlovsk region)
Reactor type: AMB-100/200, BN-600
Number of units: 3 (2 decommissioned) + 1 under construction
Years of commissioning: 1964, 1967, 1980

This is the first large-power NPP built in the country and the only nuclear site which houses reactors of different type. It has on its site the single world’s fast reactor with large power – BN-600 (Unit 3). Fast reactor plants would significantly amplify the fuel resources available to nuclear power whilst minimizing the amount of wastes in a closed nuclear fuel cycle. Unit 1 and 2 were put in decommissioning in the 1980’s, on the end of their service life. Unit 4 with BN-800 reactor is scheduled for commissioning in 2014.

Bilibino NPP
Location: near Bilibino (Chukotka Autonomous District)
Reactor type: EGP-6
Number of units: 4
Years of commissioning: 1974 (2), 1975, 1976

The plant produces about 75 % of electricity generated in the isolated Chaun-Bilibino power grid which accounts for approximately 40 % of electricity consumed in Chukotka Autonomous District. The plant is equipped with four uranium-graphite pressure-tube reactors, each with the installed capacity 12 MWe. It generates both electricity and heat which is supplied to Bilibino town nearby.

Rostov (Volgodonsk) NPP
Location: near Volgodonsk (Rostov region)
Reactor type: VVER -1000
Number of units: 2
Years of commissioning: 2001, 2010

Rostov NPP is located on a bank of Tzimlyansk water reservoir, 13.5 km away from the town of Volgodonsk. The plant is one of the biggest power facilities in the South of Russia, providing about 15 % of annual electricity generation in this region. Unit 1 has generated more than 63.04 bln. kWh since its commissioning. Unit 2 (Rostov NPP) was put in operation in 2010.

Kalinin NPP
Location: near Udomlya (Tver region)
Reactor type: VVER -1000
Number of units: 4
Years of commissioning: 1984, 1986, 2004, 2012

Kalinin NPP has 4 operating units with water-cooled water-moderated reactors VVER-1000, each with the capacity 1000 MWe.

Kola NPP
Location: near Polyarnyie Zori (Murmansk region)
Reactor type: VVER -440
Number of units: 4
Years of commissioning: 1973, 1974, 1981, 1984

Kola NPP located 200 km to the south of Murmansk, on the shore of the Imandra lake, is principal electricity supplier in Murmansk region and Karelia. The plant consists of 4 operating units with VVER-440 reactors of two modifications –V-230 (Units 1, 2) and V-213 (Units 3, 4). Total capacity of the four units is 1760 MWe. The plant was rated first among Russian NPPs in 1996—1998.

Kursk NPP
Location: near Kurchatov (Kursk region)
Reactor type: RBMK -1000
Number of units: 4
Year of commissioning: 1976, 1979, 1983, 1985

Kursk NPP is situated on the left bank of the river Seim, 40 km to the south-west of Kursk. There are 4 operating units with RBMK-1000 (uranium-graphite pressure-tube thermal reactors) with total capacity 4 GWe. All units were radically upgraded: the first-generation reactors (Units 1, 2) in 1993-2004, the units of the second generation (Units 3, 4) – in 2008-2009. The plant has been demonstrating high safety and reliability.

Leningrad NPP
Location: near Sosnovy Bor (Leningrad region)
Reactor type: RBMK-1000
Number of units: 4 + 2 under construction
Years of commissioning: 1973, 1975, 1979, 1981

Leningrad plant was the first nuclear site in the country to house RBMK-1000 reactors. It was built 80 km to the west of St. Petersburg, on the Gulf of Finland shore. There are 4 units on the site, each with the capacity 1000 MWe. Currently the second NPP is under construction in this locality (See Leningrad NPP-2 below).

Novovoronezh NPP
Location: near Novovoronezh (Voronezh region)
Reactor type: VVER of different power
Number of units: 3 (plus 2 put in decommissioning)
Years of commissioning: 1964, 1969, 1971, 1972, 1980

This is the first Russian NPP with VVER reactors. All five reactors are prototypes of serial power facilities. Unit 1 was equipped with VVER-210, Unit 2 — with VVER-365; Units 3, 4 have VVER-440, Unit 5 — VVER-1000. Currently, the plant has 3 operating reactors (Units 1,2 were permanently shut down in 1988 and 1990). Novovoronezh NPP-2 is being constructed to AES-2006 design using the VVER-1200 reactor system. General contractor for Novovoronezh NPP-2 is Moscow Atomenergoproekt.

Smolensk NPP
Location: near Desnogorsk (Smolensk region)
Reactor type: RBMK-1000
Number of units: 3
Year of commissioning: 1982, 1985, 1990

Smolensk NPP with its 3 RBMK-1000 is a leading energy source in the North-West of Russia. The plant was built in the south part of Smolensk region, 3 km away from the town of Desnogorsk. It was the first among Russian NPPs to get in 2007 a certificate of quality management compliance with ISO 9001:2000. The plant is the largest backbone enterprise in Smolensk region. Its contribution to the regional budget exceeds 30 %.


2. NPPs under construction

Beloyarsk NPP Phase Two
Location: near Zarechny (Sverdlovsk Region)
Reactor: BN-800
Number of units: 1 under construction


Phase Two cornerstone will be Unit 4 of Beloyarsk NPP with BN-800 fast neutron reactor. It is constructed in accordance with the Federal Target Program “Development of Nuclear Power and Industry Complex of Russia in 2007–2010 and until 2015.” Tentatively, the construction completion is set on 2013-2014. Commissioning of this unit promises a substantial expansion of the nuclear power fuel basis and minimizing radioactive waste through the closed nuclear fuel cycle.


Leningrad NPP-2
Location: near Sosnovy Bor (Leningrad region)
Reactor type: VVER-1200
Number of units: 2 under construction; four in total

The plant is being built at the site of the Leningrad NPP. Units 1 and 2 of LNPP-2 were included in the long-term (2009—2015) program of Rosatom activities, endorsed by the RF Government ordinance № 705 of 20.09.2008. Rosenergoatom performs customer-developer function in the project. On September 12, 2007, Rostechnadzor formally issued the site licenses for Units 1 and 2 (VVER -1200) of the Leningrad NPP-2. On winning an open tender, St. Petersburg AEP (part of the Atomenergoprom holding) signed on March 14, 2008, a governemental contract with Rosatom to “perform a package of activities to construct and put in operation Units 1 and 2 of the Leningrad NPP-2, including planning and survey work, construction, installation, commissioning, procurement of equipment, materials and articles”. Rostechnadzor issued construction licenses for the units in June of 2008 and July of 2009.

Novovoronezh NPP-2
Location: near Novovoronezh (Voronezh region)
Reactor type: VVER-1200
Number of units: 2 under construction, 2 more at the design stage

Novovoronezh NPP is being built at the site of the existing plant. General contractor for the project is Moscow Atomenergoproekt. The project intends to use VVER reactor system with the capacity up to 1200 MWe. Phase I of the new plant will include two units planned to be put on line in в 2013-2015.

Floating NPP “Academician Lomonosov”
Location: Viluchinsk city, Kamchatka Region
Reactor type: KLT-40
Number of units: 2

The world’s first floating nuclear power plant will be equipped with marine reactors of the KLT-40S type, which have been successfully operated at ice-breakers for many years. The plant will have total capacity of 70 MWe. It will be transported to operation place by water and will be fixed there to operate with the support of a specially arranged coastal infrastructure. Construction of the first floating NPP began in 2007 at Sevmash, but a year later was transferred to shipyard Baltiiskiy Zavod in St. Petersburg. The plant is to be floated out in 2012, operated in Kamchatka.

Baltic NPP
Location: Neman District, Kaliningrad Region
Reactor type: VVER-1200
Number of units: 2

Baltic NPP is the first nuclear power project in Russia eligible for private investors who are expected to have up to 49% of the stock. The plant will be equipped with 1200 MWe VVERs.  The first unit is to be built by 2016, followed by the second unit in 2018. Design service life of each unit is 60 years. General contractor for the project is Atomstroyexport.

Other construction plans include as a possibility Nizhniy Novgorod NPP (Navashinsk district in Nizhniy Novgorod region, two VVER-1200); Central NPP (Buisk district, Kostroma region), Seversk NPP (“closed” city of Seversk, Tomsk region, two VVER-1200).

As of now, the only plant to have a formal status of a decommissioned facility is Obninsk NPP. This is the world’s first nuclear power plant that was started up in 1954 and permanently shut down in 2002. A museum is being set up around the plant at present.


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