Global warming is a hazardous process of a gradual rise of annual average temperature of the Earth atmosphere and World Ocean. One of the causes of this phenomenon is the so-called “greenhouse effect”: growing atmospheric content of carbonic acid (СО2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), perfluorocarbons (PFC), hydrofluorocarbons (HFC) and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), with the ensuing rise of average air temperature near the Earth surface. Because of this effect, average Earth temperature became 0.74°C higher over the period from 1906 to 2005.
Climatic change effects already shown up, in particular, as more frequent and strong hazardous weather phenomena, sprawl of infectious diseases. Other possible effects include changes in precipitation rate and frequency, glacier thawing and sea level rise, growing threats to ecosystems and biodiversity. All this entails significant economic damage, puts in jeopardy ecosystem stability, as well as the human health and life.
Russian nuclear industry is one of the world’s leaders in terms of the level of scientific and technological developments in the area of reactor design, nuclear fuel, experience of nuclear power plant operation, NPP personnel qualification. Enterprises of the industry have accumulated huge experience in solving large-scale tasks — such as creating the world’s first nuclear power plant (1954) and developing fuel for it. Russia possesses world’s most advanced enrichment technologies, and nuclear power plants with VVER water-moderated water-cooled power reactors have proved their reliability in the course of one thousand reactor years of trouble-free operation. High quality of manufactured products and offered services is also confirmed by the successes in international tenders for nuclear fuel supplies and NPP construction abroad.
Today Russian nuclear industry constitutes a powerful complex of over 200 enterprises and organizations employing over 250 thousand people. Industry structure includes four large-scale research and production complexes: enterprises of nuclear fuel cycle, nuclear power engineering, nuclear weapons application, and research institutes. JSC Atomenergoprom, which consolidates the civilian part of the nuclear industry, is a part of Rosatom State Atomic Energy Corporation. ROSATOM unites a number of enterprises of nuclear power engineering, as well as of nuclear and radiation safety, nuclear weapons complex, and fundamental research.
Russian research into nuclear physics goes back to 1918 when a special office (Department Number One) was set up with the Academy of Sciences Committee for natural and production resources. The new department was to organize exploration of rare and radioactive materials. Two years later – in 1920 an atomic committee met for the first session that was attended by several outstanding scientists, including famous physicist Abram Ioffe. The next year, the State Scientific Council with Commissariat (ministry) of Education founded Radium laboratory (later Radium Institute) under the Academy of Sciences, and put Vitaly Khlopyn at its head.